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貧困地區撤銷鄉鎮改設鄉鎮公所可行性研究報告DOC

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更新時間:2020-9-21

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鄉鎮政權是維護國家和社會政治穩定的根基,在一定歷史期間發揮了巨大的作 用,但隨著社會發展,鄉鎮政府被日益嚴重的財政危機所困擾,這一沉重的包袱已經 成為農村經濟發展和農民增收的障礙,從根本上解決財政危機已迫在眉睫。 本文采取比較研究的方法、歷史研究的方法、定性分析與定量分析相結合的手段, 通過實地調研,首先分析古今中外行政區劃的特點及我國建國以來鄉鎮政府的歷次演 變;其次分析了鄉鎮財政產生危機的原因、表現、根源,研究認為我國鄉鎮財政先天 不足是導致鄉鎮財政危機重重決定性的因素。鄉鎮政府作為最基層一級政府,其權力 的無休止延展與增長十分緩慢的貧困財政構成一個永遠無法和諧的矛盾,這在一定程 度上反映了生產關系與生產力,上層建筑與經濟基礎之間的不適應性。 本文最后運用現代管理理念和市場經濟原理,充分論證當前撤銷鄉鎮政府的必要 性和改設鄉鎮公所可行性,并對改設后的鄉鎮公所機構設置、冗員分流及公共產品提 供進行了創造性地規劃和設計。研究認為改設后的鄉鎮公所適應加入 WTO 形勢的需 要,其機構之精簡、運轉之高效,職能之徹底轉換,對于促進農村經濟和社會發展具 有極為重要的戰略意義。 關鍵詞:貧困地區 , 撤銷 , 鄉鎮政府, 改設 , 鄉鎮公所II Abstract Township Government Organs is the basis of maintaining social and political stability of the state. It plays a great important role in a certain time period. But with the development of the society, Township Organs are gradually obsessed by the crisis of serious financial problems. This heavy burden has become an obstacle to develop rural economics and increase peasant’s income. We need a radical resolving to this financial crisis. This thesis used comparative method & historical method on the research, combined with qualitative analysis & quantitative analysis and field surveys. It firstly analyses the characteristics of regionalism of both ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign and all previous evolvement of Township organs since the establishment of P. R. China. Secondly it analyses the reason, performance and root of township financial crisis. The research indicates the congenital deficiency is the decisive reason of township financial crisis. As the grass-roots organization, its endless extending power and slowly increased finances make an ever-lasting contradiction. This in a certain extent reflects the inapplicability between productive relationship and productive forces, superstructure and economic base. Lastly, by using modern management idea and market economy theory, this thesis fully demonstrate the necessity of abolishment of township governments and the feasibility of setting up township official bureau. It also provides a creative planning and design for the structure installment, redundant personnel dissociation and public products of the assumed township official bureau. The research concludes that the establishment of township official bureau will be adaptable to the requirement of WTO, the simplification of governmental framework and high efficiency. It has an important significance to the development of rural economy and society. Key words: Poor—stricken areas , abolishment, Township governments , Convert, Township official bureauIII 目 錄 摘要 ............................................................................................................I Abstract.............................................................................................................II 1 緒 論 1.1 課題的背景、研究現狀和意義 ............................................................(1) 1.2 研究方法 ................................................................................................(2) 2 中外行政區劃簡述 2.1 我國歷代行政區劃簡述 ........................................................................(3) 2.2 國外行政區劃簡述 ................................................................................(5) 3 建國后鄉鎮發展的歷史沿革 3.1 建國初期的鄉鎮政權 ............................................................................(7) 3.2 人民公社時期的政社合一制 ................................................................(8) 3.3 改革開放后的鄉鎮政權 ........................................................................(9) 4 現階段鄉鎮發展狀況和面臨的挑戰 4.1 鄉鎮財政債務赤字的演變 ..................................................................(10) 4.2 鄉鎮財政危機對農村發展帶來的影響 ..............................................(12) 4.3 農村稅費改革對鄉鎮財政的影響 ......................................................(14) 4.4 鄉鎮財政危機產生的原因 ..................................................................(16) 5 撤銷鄉鎮是基層政府改革的現實選擇IV 5.1 撤銷鄉鎮一級政府理論探討 ..............................................................(19) 5.2 撤銷鄉鎮改設鄉鎮公所可行性研究 ..................................................(21) 6 鄉鎮公所運行機制規劃 6.1 鄉鎮公所機構設置應遵循原則 ..........................................................(24) 6.2 鄉鎮公所機構的設置 ..........................................................................(25) 6.3 鄉鎮公所運行機制規劃 ......................................................................(28) 結 束 語 .......................................................................................................(34) 注 釋 .......................................................................................................(35) 致 謝 .......................................................................................................(36)
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